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 2_programmation:encodage:notion_d_encodage [2018/12/04 01:15]jejust 2_programmation:encodage:notion_d_encodage [2021/08/22 21:54] (Version actuelle)jejust Correction d'un problème d'UTF-8. Mise à jour des liens internes. Les deux révisions précédentes Révision précédente 2021/08/22 21:54 jejust Correction d'un problème d'UTF-8. Mise à jour des liens internes.2018/12/04 01:15 jejust 2018/06/03 16:26 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 16:21 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:37 d.p.carlisle 2018/06/03 15:35 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:21 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:19 d.p.carlisle 2018/06/03 15:19 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 15:15 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:07 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 15:06 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:01 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 12:02 d.p.carlisle 2018/06/02 17:39 joseph.wright 2018/06/02 16:48 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/31 15:51 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/28 18:14 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/25 23:22 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 21:35 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 11:01 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 11:00 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 00:06 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 00:06 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 19:11 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 19:02 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 10:42 joseph.wright 2021/08/22 21:54 jejust Correction d'un problème d'UTF-8. Mise à jour des liens internes.2018/12/04 01:15 jejust 2018/06/03 16:26 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 16:21 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:37 d.p.carlisle 2018/06/03 15:35 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:21 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:19 d.p.carlisle 2018/06/03 15:19 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 15:15 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:07 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 15:06 samcarter 2018/06/03 15:01 joseph.wright 2018/06/03 12:02 d.p.carlisle 2018/06/02 17:39 joseph.wright 2018/06/02 16:48 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/31 15:51 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/28 18:14 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/25 23:22 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 21:35 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 11:01 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 11:00 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 00:06 joseph.wright 2018/05/25 00:06 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 19:11 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 19:02 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 10:42 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 10:42 joseph.wright 2018/05/24 10:33 joseph.wright 2018/05/23 23:29 joseph.wright 2018/05/23 23:23 joseph.wright 2018/05/23 22:29 joseph.wright 2018/05/23 18:51 joseph.wright 2018/05/23 15:59 d.p.carlisle 2018/05/23 10:41 joseph.wright 2018/05/22 21:44 joseph.wright 2018/05/22 19:47 joseph.wright 2018/05/22 13:38 joseph.wright créée Ligne 3: Ligne 3: Let's start by defining two concepts, the //​character//​ and the Let's start by defining two concepts, the //​character//​ and the - //glyph//. + //​glyph//​. ​ The character is the abstract idea of the "​atom"​ of a - The character is the abstract idea of the "​atom"​ of a + language or other dialogue: so it might be a letter in an alphabetic language or other dialogue: so it might be a letter in an alphabetic language, a syllable in a syllabic language, or an ideogram in an language, a syllable in a syllabic language, or an ideogram in an ideographic language. ​ The glyph is the mark created on screen or ideographic language. ​ The glyph is the mark created on screen or - paper which represents a character. ​ Of + paper which represents a character. ​ Of course, if reading is to be possible, - course, if reading is to be possible, there must be some agreed + there must be some agreed relationship between the glyph and the character, - relationship between the glyph and the character, so while the precise + so while the precise shape of the glyph can be affected by many other factors, - shape of the glyph can be affected by many other factors, such as the + such as the capabilities of the writing medium and the designer'​s style, - capabilities of the writing medium and the designer'​s style, ​the + the essence of the underlying character must be retained. - essence of the underlying character must be retained. + Whenever a computer has to represent characters, someone has to define Whenever a computer has to represent characters, someone has to define Ligne 29: Ligne 27: terminals that produced all sorts of odd characters, and as a result terminals that produced all sorts of odd characters, and as a result TeX contains some provision for translating its input (however TeX contains some provision for translating its input (however - encoded) to something regular. ​ Nowadays, ​ + encoded) to something regular. ​ Nowadays, ​ the operating system translates - the operating system translates keystrokes into a code appropriate for + keystrokes into a code appropriate for the user's language: the encoding used - the user's language: the encoding used is usually a national or + is usually a national or international standard, though some operating systems - international standard, though some operating systems use "code + use "code pages" (as defined by Microsoft). ​ These standards and code pages - pages" (as defined by Microsoft). ​ These standards and code pages often + often contain characters that may not appear in the TeX system'​s input stream. - contain characters that may not appear in the TeX system'​s input + Somehow, these characters have to be dealt with --- so an input character like "é" - stream. ​ Somehow, these characters have to be dealt with --- so + needs to be interpreted by TeX in a way that that at least mimics the way - an input character like "Ã©" needs to be interpreted by TeX in + it interprets ''​\'​e''​.  ​ - a way that that at least mimics the way it interprets ''​\'​e''​.  ​ + The TeX output stream is in a somewhat different situation: The TeX output stream is in a somewhat different situation: Ligne 43: Ligne 40: used.  Thus the encoding of the output stream is notionally a font used.  Thus the encoding of the output stream is notionally a font encoding (though the font in question may be a encoding (though the font in question may be a - [[FAQ-virtualfonts|virtual font]]). ​ In principle, a + [[5_fichiers:​fontes:​que_sont_les_fontes_virtuelles|virtual font]]). - fair bit of what appears in the output stream could be direct + In principle, a fair bit of what appears in the output stream could be - transcription of what arrived in the input, but the output stream + direct ​transcription of what arrived in the input, but the output stream also contains the product of commands in the input, and translations also contains the product of commands in the input, and translations - of the input such as ligatures like + of the input such as ligatures like  ''​fi''​. - ''​fi''​. + Font encodings became a hot topic when the Font encodings became a hot topic when the - [[FAQ-ECfonts|Cork encoding]] + [[5_fichiers:​fontes:​que_sont_les_fontes_ec|Cork encoding]] appeared, because of the possibility of suppressing appeared, because of the possibility of suppressing ''​\accent''​ commands in the output stream (and hence improving the ''​\accent''​ commands in the output stream (and hence improving the quality of the hyphenation of text in inflected languages, which is quality of the hyphenation of text in inflected languages, which is interrupted by the ''​\accent''​ commands --- see interrupted by the ''​\accent''​ commands --- see - [[FAQ-hyphen|"how does hyphenation work"​]]). + [[3_composition:​langues:​cesure:​comment_fonctionne_la_cesure|"how does hyphenation work"​]]). To take advantage of the diacriticised characters represented in the To take advantage of the diacriticised characters represented in the - fonts, it is necessary to arrange that whenever the + fonts, it is necessary to arrange that whenever the command sequence ''​\'​e''​ - command sequence ''​\'​e''​ has been input + has been input (explicitly,​ or implicitly via the sort of mapping of input - (explicitly,​ or implicitly via the sort of mapping of input mentioned + mentioned above), the character that codes the position of the "é" glyph is used. - above), the character that codes the position of the "Ã©" glyph is + - used. + Thus we could have the odd arrangement that the diacriticised character in Thus we could have the odd arrangement that the diacriticised character in Ligne 80: Ligne 74: ----- ----- - //Source:// [[faquk>​FAQ-whatenc|What are encodings?​]] //Source:// [[faquk>​FAQ-whatenc|What are encodings?​]] - {{htmlmetatags>​metatag-keywords=(LaTeX,​concepts) + {{htmlmetatags>​metatag-keywords=(LaTeX,​encodage,​codage,​représentation des caractères,​T1,​OT1,​fontes) metatag-og:​title=(What are encodings?) metatag-og:​title=(What are encodings?) metatag-og:​site_name=(FAQ LaTeX francophone) metatag-og:​site_name=(FAQ LaTeX francophone) }} }}
2_programmation/encodage/notion_d_encodage.txt · Dernière modification: 2021/08/22 21:54 par jejust