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— title: URLs in BibTeX bibliographies category: bibliographies permalink: /FAQ-citeURL redirect_from: /FAQ-citeurl —

There is no citation type for URLs, _per se_, in the standard BibTeX styles, though Oren Patashnik (the author of BibTeX) is believed to be considering developing one such for use with the long-awaited BibTeX version 1.0.

The actual information that need be available in a citation of an URL is discussed at some length in the publicly available on-line [extracts of ISO 690–2](http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/iso/tc46sc9/docs/sc9n473.pdf); the techniques below do _not_ satisfy all the requirements of ISO 690–2, but they offer a solution that is at least available to users of today's tools.

Until the new version of BibTeX arrives, the simplest technique is to use the `howpublished` field of the standard styles' `@misc` function. Of course, the strictures about [typesetting URLs](FAQ-setURL) still apply, so the entry will look like: ```latex @misc{…,

...,
howpublished = "\url{http://...}"

} ``` A possible alternative approach is to use BibTeX styles other than the standard ones, that already have URL entry types. Candidates are:

- The [`natbib`](https://ctan.org/pkg/natbib) styles ([`plainnat`](https://ctan.org/pkg/natbib),

  [`unsrtnat`](https://ctan.org/pkg/natbib) and [`abbrevnat`](https://ctan.org/pkg/natbib)), which are extensions of
  the standard styles, principally for use with [`natbib`](https://ctan.org/pkg/natbib)
  itself.  However, they've acquired URLs and other "modern"
  entries along the way.  The same author's [`custom-bib`](https://ctan.org/pkg/custom-bib) is
  also capable of generating styles that honour URL entries.

- The [`babelbib`](https://ctan.org/pkg/babelbib) bundle, which offers

  [multilingual bibliographies](FAQ-i18nbib), similarly provides a
  set of standard-style equivalents that have URL entries.

- More modern styles such as the [`harvard`](https://ctan.org/pkg/harvard) package (if the

  citation styles are otherwise satisfactory for you).
  [`Harvard`](https://ctan.org/pkg/Harvard) bibliography styles all include a `url`
  field in their specification; however, the typesetting offered is
  somewhat feeble (though it does recognise and use
  `LaTeX2HTML` macros if they are available, to create
  hyperlinks).

You can also acquire new BibTeX styles by use of Norman Gray's [`urlbst`](https://ctan.org/pkg/urlbst) system, which is based on a `Perl` script that edits an existing BibTeX style file to produce a new style. The new style thus generated has a `webpage` entry type, and also offers support for `url` and `lastchecked` fields in the other entry types. The `Perl` script comes with a set of converted versions of the standard bibliography styles.

Another possibility is that some conventionally-published paper, technical report (or even book) is also available on the Web. In such cases, a useful technique is something like: ```bibtex @techreport{…,

...,
note = "Also available as \url{http://...}"

} ``` There is good reason to use the [`url`](https://ctan.org/pkg/url) or [`hyperref`](https://ctan.org/pkg/hyperref) packages in this context: BibTeX has a habit of splitting lines it considers excessively long, and if there are no space characters for it to use as “natural” breakpoints, BibTeX will insert a comment (`%`) character … which is an acceptable character in an URL. Any current version of either of the [`url`](https://ctan.org/pkg/url) or [`hyperref`](https://ctan.org/pkg/hyperref) packages detects this “`%`–end-of-line” structure in its argument, and removes it.

composition/annexes/bibliographie/citer_une_url2.1528031820.txt.gz · Dernière modification: 2018/06/03 15:17 par joseph.wright
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