Moving tables and figures in LaTeX

Tables and figures have a tendency to surprise, by floating away from where they were specified to appear. This is in fact perfectly ordinary document design; any professional typesetting package will float figures and tables to where they'll fit without violating the certain typographic rules. Even if you use the placement specifier h (for “here”), the figure or table will not be printed “here” if doing so would break the rules; the rules themselves are pretty simple, and are given on page 198, section C.9 of the LaTeX manual. In the worst case, LaTeX's rules can cause the floating items to pile up to the extent that you get an error message saying “Too many unprocessed floats”. What follows is a simple checklist of things to do to solve these problems (the checklist talks throughout about figures, but applies equally well to tables, or to “non-standard” floats defined by the float or other packages).

- Do your figures need to float at all? If not, look at the

  recommendations for "[[FAQ-figurehere|non-floating floats]]"

- Are the placement parameters on your figures right? The

  default (''tbp'') is usually satisfactory, but you can
  reasonably change it (for example, to add an ''h'').
  Whatever you do, //don't//
  omit the ''p'': doing so could cause LaTeX to believe that if you
  can't have your figure //here//, you don't want it
  //anywhere//.  (LaTeX does try to avoid being confused in
  this way...)

- LaTeX's own float placement parameters could be preventing

  placements that seem entirely "reasonable" to you --- they're
  notoriously rather conservative.  To encourage LaTeX not to move
  your figure, you may need to loosen its demands.  (The most important
  ones are the ratio of text to float on a given page, but it's
  sensible to have a fixed set that changes the whole lot, to meet
  every eventuality.)
  ```latex
  \renewcommand{\topfraction}{.85}
  \renewcommand{\bottomfraction}{.7}
  \renewcommand{\textfraction}{.15}
  \renewcommand{\floatpagefraction}{.66}
  \renewcommand{\dbltopfraction}{.66}
  \renewcommand{\dblfloatpagefraction}{.66}
  \setcounter{topnumber}{9}
  \setcounter{bottomnumber}{9}
  \setcounter{totalnumber}{20}
  \setcounter{dbltopnumber}{9}
  ```
  The meanings of these
  parameters are described on pages 199--200, section C.9 of the
  LaTeX manual.

- Are there places in your document where you could “naturally”

  put a ''\clearpage'' command?  If so, do: the backlog of floats is
  cleared after a ''\clearpage''.  (Note that the ''\chapter''
  command in the standard [[ctanpkg>book|book]] and [[ctanpkg>report|report]] classes
  implicitly executes ''\clearpage'', so your floats can't wander past
  the end of a chapter.)

- Try the placeins package: it defines a

  ''\FloatBarrier'' command beyond which floats may not pass.  A
  package option allows you to declare that floats may not pass a
  ''\section'' command, but you can place ''\FloatBarrier''s wherever
  you choose.

- If you are bothered by floats appearing at the top of the page

  (before they are specified in your text), try the [[ctanpkg>latex-base|flafter]]
  package, which avoids this problem by insisting that floats should
  always appear after their definition.

- Have a look at the LaTeX2e afterpage package.

  Its documentation gives as an example the idea
  of putting ''\clearpage'' //after// the current page (where it
  will clear the backlog, but not cause an ugly gap in your text), but
  also admits that the package is somewhat fragile.  Use it as a last
  resort if the other possibilities below don't help.

- If you would actually like great blocks of floats at the

  end of each of your chapters, try the ''\extrafloats'' command,
  or in older LaTeX releases, the [[ctanpkg>morefloats|morefloats]] package;
  this allows you to increase the number of floating inserts that LaTeX
  can handle at one time (from its original value of 18 or, now, 52, in
  LaTeX2e).
  Caveat: if you are using [[ctanpkg>etex-pkg|etex]] package to increase the number of
  registers available on old releases, you need to "reserve" some inserts for
  [[ctanpkg>morefloats|morefloats]]: something like:
  ```latex
  \usepackage{etex}
  \reserveinserts{18}
  \usepackage{morefloats}
  ```

- If you actually wanted all your figures to float to the

  end (//e.g//., for submitting a draft copy of a paper), don't
  rely on LaTeX's mechanism: get the [[ctanpkg>endfloat|endfloat]] package to do
  the job for you.

Source: Moving tables and figures in LaTeX

composition/flottants/pourquoi_faire_flotter_ses_figures_et_tableaux.txt · Dernière modification: 2018/12/04 00:15 par jejust
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